Shared Voices for Community Safety

Summer break has drawn to a close in Wisconsin, and as students head back to the classroom, concerns about school safety may arise. Last month, Wausau, Wisconsin, Police Department (WPD) took steps to pre-emptively address these concerns. Through a request to the Collaborative Reform Initiative – Technical Assistance Center (CRI-TAC), WPD participated in a School and Workplace Violence Seminar. This course from the National Tactical Officers Association (NTOA) provided a forum for staff from local police departments, sheriff’s offices, school districts, social services, and health care organizations to come together to prepare their community to appropriately assess and manage threats and respond to violence as well as to build relationships among organizations and agencies.

wausau1

Over the course of the two-day seminar, everyone had an opportunity to ask questions, pose solutions, and learn more about how to prevent and respond to school and workplace violence. Through discussions, table top exercises, and other activities, participants learned about warning signs, layers of response, resource allocation, and processes. As one of the local high school associate principals explained, “The material forced us to examine every phase of threat assessment…moving all the way to emergency planning.” They learned to apply lessons garnered from high-profile events from around the world, and gained unique insight by debriefing on past local incidents.

“Our group of stakeholders agreed on the need to address emergency planning and threat assessment procedures in a collaborative manner, for the benefit of the larger shared community we all serve together,” said Wausau Police Lieutenant Nathan Cihlar. “The training provided by CRI-TAC was an excellent means of bringing the necessary players together with a training experience that has provided the foundation for building our community Threat Assessment Team initiative.”

wausau2

Is school safety a priority for your community? Do you believe your agency would benefit from this training, or a similar one? If you are interested in learning more about this or other services and resources available through the CRI-TAC visit the program webpage or email CRITAC@theIACP.org.

 

This project was supported, in whole or in part, by cooperative agreement number 2017-CR-WX-K001 awarded by the U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Community Oriented Policing Services. The opinions contained herein are those of the author(s) or contributor(s) and do not necessarily represent the official position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice. References to specific individuals, agencies, companies, products, or services should not be considered an endorsement by the author(s) or the U.S. Department of Justice. Rather, the references are illustrations to supplement discussion of the issues.
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The Benefits of IACP 2018

Guest Blogger: Cynthia Renaud, Chief, Santa Monica, California, Police Department and IACP 3rd Vice President. 

With about 10 years of IACP conferences under my belt now, I certainly have my own thoughts about what I’ve received personally and professionally from attending, but this year I’m really considering why, as a chief, I take several people from my organization with me.  I mean, this is a “chief’s” conference, right?  So why am I bringing lieutenants, a captain, and a professional staff person along with me?

  • Individual learning: First, you can’t beat the education tracks offered at the IACP conference.  There is so much to attend, you almost have to bring people so you can divide and conquer!  We usually get together ahead of time with the workshop agenda and decide who will attend what, then debrief to each other and our organizations when conference is over.  It’s a great way to get the most information possible across the wide variety of workshops offered.
  • Best practices and emerging trends: The IACP conference is the one place to hear about best practices from agencies around the globe, while also offering insight into emerging trends and technology sure to impact the future of our profession.
  • Exhibit Hall: It’s a one-stop-location for equipment, technology, gadgets, vehicles, latest crime prevention tools, communication devices, and so much more!  My department is looking at potentially making some technological changes over the next year, and we have been waiting for conference because we know all the companies we need will be brought to us in one location!
  • Networking: I don’t have to tell any of you about the great networking opportunities available through conference attendance.  It’s a chance to meet new professionals worldwide, connect with friends from different professional development programs, and see colleagues from so many other classes and courses we attend throughout our careers.  But by bringing people from our organizations, it’s also a great chance for us to expose our next generations to our personal networks that we have built up over the years.  Which leads me to my last point…
  • Succession planning: As executives, one of our highest priorities is to build our benches, mentor, succession plan, and get the generation behind us (and the generation behind them!) ready to take the reins.  When I bring co-workers with me to conference, I am able to spend several days steeping them in the current trends of the profession while allowing them to push their own boundaries and explore the future of our profession that they will create together.  And in that piece alone, we, as chiefs, fulfill the mission of the IACP:

Serving the Leaders of Today…DEVELOPING the Leaders of Tomorrow

The IACP Annual Conference will be held October 6-9, 2018 in Orlando, Florida.

 

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The Law Enforcement Marriage: Knowing When It’s Time to Get Help

Guest Blogger: John Oldham, Assistant Chief, Jacksonville (FL) Sheriff’s Office

Healthy marriages and relationships have the potential to provide law enforcement officers a great degree of support. Officers tend to work long non-traditional hours and encounter many on the job stressors that some traditional jobs might not. Healthy marriages can contribute to minimizing stressors and distractions that may affect judgement and focus in both partners. Recent research has also shown that couples in healthy marriages are more likely to have improved immune systems and therefore have reduced rates of illnesses and are often more health-conscious. These couples may actually live longer than those in unhealthy or unhappy marriages.[1]

There are some factors of having a spouse working in law enforcement that might impact the harmony of a marriage. An officer’s non-traditional work hours or on-call duty can interfere with family life. Some officers can develop cumulative PTSD or other mental health conditions that can make building and nurturing interpersonal relationships difficult.  In many instances, couples are not prepared for, or educated on the psychological impact that the job could have.

It is critical for the couple to recognize when it is time to seek help and receive care. Frequent self- and partner inventories of the marriage can be helpful to resolve issues before they become large scale stressors. Below are some common signals couples should take note of and consider seeking professional help if they feel any of the below applies.

  1. If either spouse begins to prioritize a job above the marital relationship, miscommunications could arise.
  2. The officer starts having fewer non-law enforcement friends causing the non-law enforcement spouse to feel isolated as civilian friendships dissipate over time.
  3. Conflict, arguments, or disputes in the marriage are resolved less often and leave one or both spouses emotionally hurt. When conflict resolution skills no longer work like they did, the impact of the job can be a major cause.
  4. The officer feels his/her spouse doesn’t understand the officer or the job requirements. This often occurs because neither spouse acquired reliable and honest information on what the job entails and the challenges associated with a law enforcement career.  Because of this, both spouses are unable to identify the reason for the misunderstanding.
  5. One or both spouses begin to see more negatives than positives in the marriage. This applies to any marriage, but it is significantly important in the law enforcement marriage because officers may become more cynical the longer they are in the profession.

Officers and their spouse should heed these signs and seek confidential help to refocus  the marriage that can lead to healthier, safer, more balanced lives.

Having a healthy support system for both partners is an important aspect to a successful and fulfilling marriage and law enforcement career. Support systems aren’t created or broken overnight, through thoughtful, conscious, honest, and sometimes guided conversations, law enforcement marriages and families can build a solid foundation to support the relationship and each other throughout a person’s career.

Assistant Chief Oldham will be speaking at the 2018 IACP Annual Conference during the No More Victims: Critical Care of the ‘Flat Line’ Law Enforcement Marriage on Sunday, October 7, 2018, 8:00am-9:30am at the Orange County Convention Center West Building, room W305. This workshop is part of the Companion track and will discuss issues and tools to promote strong law enforcement marriages; additional family wellness resources will be available during this workshop.

For more information on Law Enforcement Family Resources:

[1]   John Gottman.  The Seven Principles for Making Marriage Work. (New York, NY:  Harmony Books, 2015)

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Announcing the 2018 40 Under 40 Awardees

The IACP 40 Under 40 award program is designed to recognize individuals in law enforcement under the age of 40 who demonstrate leadership and commitment to the profession. The award program is a chance for law enforcement agencies to recognize the rising leaders within their agency who possess the leadership skills and dedication that is essential to lead law enforcement now and in the future.

The IACP is pleased to announce the 40 leaders selected for this year’s award. Chosen from a very competitive field of applicants by review panels composed of law enforcement executives, previous awardees, and international representatives, these individuals embody the qualities inherent in excellent law enforcement personnel and leaders.

This year’s awardees represent local, state, and national law enforcement agencies, the military, university police departments, and federal agencies. They hail from 11 countries—the United States, Canada, Colombia, the United Arab Emirates, Spain, Israel, the United Kingdom, Pakistan, Australia, Mexico, and Taiwan. They include chiefs of police, sergeants, investigators, lieutenants, and numerous other roles and ranks, serving their communities in both sworn and non-sworn positions.

The 40 Under 40 awardees’ leadership, dedication, and spirit of service both on and off duty is truly admirable.

Meet the 2018 awardees—and look for their profiles in the November 2018 Police Chief.

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Police Chief: Enhanced Content and Design to Better Serve You

As an IACP member, one of your most familiar reminders of the many benefits that come with IACP membership is probably the arrival of Police Chief in your mailbox or at your agency every month. To ensure that this member benefit remains relevant and useful to you and your team IACP is launching a new, improved Police Chief in October 2018.

What’s New?

One of the first things you might notice in the updated Police Chief is its new look. This includes features, such as

  • A new, modern take on the Police Chief masthead and a refreshed cover design
  • Improved font, layout, and spacing to improve the readability of the magazine
  • An easy-to-navigate table of contents with more information, including brief article summaries, so you can quickly find a particular story or column
  • Color-coding of sections so you always know where you are and what you can expect on each page

Product Feature

  • Increased presence of sidebars, images, and call-outs to provide snapshots of content in a quick glance for when time is short.

 Cover Image

In addition to a fresh look, Police Chief also has some new content for our members and readers.

The Advisor: Three experienced law enforcement executives answer a question from a new chief or future law enforcement leader. See how other leaders have handled the challenges you are facing and get tips from those who know what it’s like to sit in the chief’s office.

October Sneak Peek: Find out from what three chiefs considered their most unexpected challenge during their first year leading an agency.

Spotlight: An innovative project by an agency is featured, along with a profile of the project’s lead or agency’s command staff. Learn what’s working at other agencies and how you can do something similar in your community.

Perspectives: Get a well-rounded look at an important topic as four individuals in different roles answers the same big-picture question about law enforcement.

October Sneak Peek: See what professionals in law enforcement and criminal justice consider to be a field-changing moment in law enforcement history.

The Beat: Your IACP membership provides access to so many resources that it can be hard to keep up sometimes! See what online resources, articles, blog posts, and social media topics your fellow members are finding most useful and engaging each month.

 What Is Staying the Same?

First and foremost, you can still expect the same high level of quality and in-depth information you’ve come to expect from Police Chief. Each issue will still have articles that dive into different aspects of the month’s topic and provide useful, actionable information.

Many of your favorite columns, such as those on officer safety, technology, legal issues, traffic safety, and, of course, the President’s Message will still appear every month, as well.

Focus on Officer Wellness

In addition, the magazine will continue to release weekly online-only articles to keep you informed all month long!

Police Chief has been evolving alongside law enforcement since the 1930s, and this is just another step in that evolution. As policing moves further into the 21st century, you can expect this reliable member benefit to keep pace as it helps you stay up to date on initiatives, solutions, and information from around the globe.

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Visit the Expo Hall at IACP 2018

The Exposition Hall at the IACP Annual Conference and Exposition is more than a place for attendees to preview the latest products and services in law enforcement. It’s also a place for attendees to learn from experts, recharge in between workshops, and network with their colleagues and peers. In addition to the more than 650 exhibitors on the show floor, the Exposition Hall features the following items:

  • Solutions Presentation Theater: Experts share best practices and product solutions for your most challenging issues. View the online program for a complete list of sessions. Free Wi-Fi will be available in the theater.
  • Walking Challenge: With a focus on officer safety and wellness initiatives, this Challenge is just one way to engage in healthy activities, some friendly competition, and win prizes at IACP 2018.

Sponsored by Guidehouse

  • The Hub – Visit The Hub in the center of the Expo Hall for education and professional development opportunities, and to learn about IACP resources.
  • Entertainment Zone: Visit IACP’s Entertainment Zone to cheer on your favorite sports teams, catch conference highlights, relax in the lounge, and access free Wi-Fi.

Sponsored by 3SI Security Systems

  • Relaxation Zone: Take a break and enjoy a complimentary seated massage by a licensed massage therapist. Our comfy chairs and complimentary snacks are sure to help you recharge.

Sponsored by Amazon Web Services

Through a combination of hands-on exhibits, live demonstrations, and educational displays, Exposition Hall visitors can also explore products and services in a wide arrange of categories, including:

  • Communications & IT
  • Vehicles & Vehicle Accessories
  • Weapons/Tactical & Protective Equipment
  • Personal Equipment & Uniforms
  • Forensics & Investigation
  • Homeland Security
  • Administration, Education & Training

Unable to attend the full IACP 2018 Conference? You don’t have to miss out, you can register for a one or two-day pass, which will get you access to the exhibition hall and education sessions.  Sworn officers, first responders, and civilian employees of public safety and government agencies and members of the armed forces can also register for complimentary access to the Exposition Hall.  Explore the full list of exhibitors and register today.

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New IACP Law Enforcement Policy Center Documents: Active Shooter Incidents

The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), defining an active shooter as “one or more individuals actively engaged in killing or attempting to kill people in a populated area,” recently reported that thirty such incidents occurred in the United States in 2017. This number has steadily climbed in recent years, resulting in 1,174 casualties since 2014 (313 killed, 1,082 injured).[1]

These events take place in schools, churches, movie theatres, and shopping malls. They can and often do occur in the most common of places, with shooters tending not to discriminate based on the size or makeup of a jurisdiction. This statistic reinforces the unfortunate reality that all law enforcement agencies, no matter available resources, must be prepared to respond to these incidents. Recognizing this fact, the IACP Law Enforcement Policy Center has published an updated Model Policy, Concepts & Issues Paper, and Need to Know… document outlining suggested response protocols for these incidents.

Active shootings often last only a matter of minutes, resulting in numerous casualties in a short span of time. The reality is that waiting for specialized law enforcement resources, such as a SWAT team, to arrive is no longer possible. Instead, immediate action should be taken by law enforcement personnel to prevent or minimize loss of life, even if only a single officer is available. To aid agencies in developing policies that embrace the concept of immediate action, in conjunction with a coordinated approach with other first responders, the IACP Law Enforcement Policy Center has developed updated guidance regarding the preferred response to active shooter situations.

While Policy Center documents are usually available exclusively to IACP members and IACP Net subscribers, the IACP recognizes the need for professionally-developed and peer-reviewed direction on combating the active shooter threat and is providing these documents free of charge. Developed by a working group comprised of experts from a variety of related disciplines, agencies are encouraged to utilize these documents when developing their agencies’ response to active shooter incidents.

[1] https://www.fbi.gov/file-repository/active-shooter-incidents-us-2016-2017.pdf/view

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The Difficulties of Maintaining Law Enforcement Spousal Support Groups

Guest blogger: Linda Seitz, co-founder of Huntington Beach Police Department S.O.S. (Support for Officers’ Spouses) group.

 picI once overheard an officer talking about the Huntington Beach Police Department Support for Officers’ Spouses (S.O.S) group. He said, “My wife is tough; she doesn’t need a group like that.” I began to wonder whether this was a common sentiment among officers and if this was part of the challenge of maintaining a law enforcement spousal support group. Are officers encouraging their spouses to seek support? Are officers acknowledging that law enforcement spouses’ roles are difficult? These comments and questions motivated me and fellow co-founder, Kirsten Knorr, to reach out to the families of the law enforcement officers in our area, because spouses do need support.

THE UNREALIZED NEED

People need each other, and people who face similar challenges often understand each other more deeply. As law enforcement spouses, often only fellow law enforcement spouses can understand the daily stress caused by canceled dinner dates, sleeping alone, missed birthday parties, or soccer games that had to be filmed because our officers were called in at the last minute. Law enforcement officers often build emotional barriers to keep their work lives and home lives separate. While officers think they are protecting their spouses, these barriers may have the opposite effect, driving wedges of miscommunication between spouses, creating feelings of isolation, and can sometimes convey the message that our feelings should be kept to ourselves to not compound our officers’ stress.

By sharing our experiences, the Huntington Beach S.O.S group is showing law enforcement spouses that they are not alone. That the group is available to provide a safe outlet for spouses and other family members of law enforcement officers in the Huntington Beach community. In addition to meeting regularly, the group continually communicates via email and a private Facebook page, building a groundwork of trust and adding an avenue of safe conversation for spouses who need support.

FEAR OF THE UNKNOWN

One of the obstacles the Huntington Beach S.O.S. group experiences is a lack of awareness of the group’s existence. There is a stigma around law enforcement that to do their jobs well and command the proper amount of respect they cannot show weakness. Officers may be anxious about their spouse attending such a group because they don’t want their families to appear weak. They may also be afraid of gossip or having their private home matters shared with others. As a result, many officers simply don’t tell their spouse about the group. Officers need to keep themselves safe, but we need to keep ourselves sane.

To help with these fears and strengthen the confidentiality of the group, we open all meetings by reiterating the main focus: how to cope with all the additional stressors of being a law enforcement spouse and family; and how to support one another in times of need. Additionally, the group supports police-sponsored service projects, first responders, trauma support teams, management, and police chaplains to demonstrate the passion the group has for the department as a whole.

MEET AND GREET

sosThe S.O.S. group seeks to host monthly socializing and quarterly discussions on relevant topics. By attempting to meet in this manner, we hope to see most spouses at least twice per year, building rapport and eventually earning trust.

Our group does face challenges. Some officers do not live in the city where they work, some live miles away, sometimes an hour or more. This makes it difficult to find a location that works for everyone. If there are little ones at home, it can add to the difficulty of finding a good time to meet.

One solution we have found is to work with the “Police Cadet” program, which is comprised of young adults associated with the police department looking to gain more exposure to a career in law enforcement. By coordinating with the Cadets, we are sometimes able to provide child care for our members at the police department. Another way we try to alleviate attendance problems is by varying the meeting times and locations.

We send the meeting invites to the department via the Peer/Trauma Support Team, who place the invites on the Wellness Boards located in the break rooms of each floor of the building. The Team also sends our invites via email so all officers are notified. If a spouse is not already plugged into the group, these communication channels are how the group reaches out to them and acquires new members.

Going forward, we plan on creating a Facebook Live platform, on our private Facebook page, so our meetings can be broadcast in a way that allows everyone to participate. We realize getting everyone together for monthly meetings is tough, but we are always seeking new ideas and new ways to offer support to our members.

Although many difficulties may arise, we are committed to supporting and strengthening the families that surround law enforcement officers, for families are the best safety nets.

For more about the Huntington Beach, CA, Police Department visit their website, like them on Facebook, and follow them on Twitter.

For more information on law enforcement family resources:

Posted in Officer Safety & Wellness

8 Reasons to Visit the Hub During IACP 2018

The IACP Annual Conference and Exposition (IACP 2018) has always been known as the world’s leading gathering of police leaders, but it is much more than that. It is also a place where officers of all ranks can enhance their professional presence, make connections, and bring best practices back to their agency.

The addition of The Hub—the conference’s one-stop-shop for professional development, learning, and networking opportunities—in 2017 made it possible for participants to experience these elements in a central location. The Hub is back again this year, bringing the following opportunities to IACP 2018 attendees at no additional cost.

  1. Professional Development. Participate in media training to better prepare for press conferences, receive interview pointers or feedback on your resume to help you land that next job. Advanced sign up is required.
  2. Education. Hear about the work of IACP projects and programs, gain tips on crisis management communication, or learn about other important subjects such as Officer Safety and Wellness or Community-Police Relations in the Hot Topics Theater.
  3. Professional Photographs. Update your professional photograph for use on social media or for official speaking engagements.
  4. Download Stations. Bring a USB drive and save IACP resources to refer to or share with colleagues back home.
  5. IACP Net. Through on-site demonstrations, explore this professional service of the IACP that helps law enforcement leaders make informed, data-driven decisions through intuitive online resources, tools, and e-libraries.
  6. Collaborative Reform Initiative Technical Assistance Center (CRI-TAC). Request customized technical assistance solutions designed to meet the distinctive needs of your agency.
  7. IACP 125th Anniversary. Take some time to explore the rich history of IACP through an interactive station featuring photos, facts, and audio from past conferences.
  8. Photo Opportunities. Capture the memories of the conference with photo opportunities around The Hub, such as this year’s commemorative photobooth which will be stocked with fun historical props.

Be on the lookout in September for an email to all conference registrants to sign-up for professional development opportunities. To learn more about IACP 2018 or to register, visit www.theiacpconference.org.

Posted in Annual Conference and Exposition

Creating a Seat at the Research Table

Guest Blogger: Sergeant Greg Stewart, Portland Police Bureau, Oregon

There is an ongoing debate about the role of data, research, and science in policing. While many officers believe that policing is an art, there is an increased call from the public, politicians, policing leaders, and others for the profession to become more data-driven and scientific. Both views have merit, but it is inarguable that with increased access to stops data, use of force data, big data, and social network analysis, as well as the growing traction of predictive policing and evidence-based policing, police work is becoming subject to the tools of science. Understanding and addressing this fact is essential if police officers are to help inform and steer the direction of research and the study of their profession.

Practitioner Research: Why Bother?

Currently, the majority of police research is about police, rather than for police. Research on police tends to emphasize the things police are doing right or what they are doing wrong. However, this type of research does not always tell police how to do things better. From mental health to homelessness, the police have inherited many of society’s problems. It’s time to start researching the solutions.

The lack of research conducted for police is a direct result of our profession’s hesitancy to engage in the research process. Without active police participation, researchers start by conducting research about policing, rather than research that will necessarily be relevant and useful to departments. Academia’s professional structure rewards the production of scientific articles over more accessible material, and officers lack incentives to value or pursue research as well, because research is not seen as integral to policing. This leads to a disconnect between the policing research and the policing profession.

By taking a seat at the research table, law enforcement can help shift the academic research focus to the immediate issues facing policing: issues such as how to accomplish de-escalation without a subject becoming violent, how best to police persons affected by mental illness, or how to conduct effective proactive crime reduction activities without harming community-police relations[i]. The policing field needs constructive, forward-looking research that addresses how to police better, as opposed to research that simply points out what is being done wrong.

From Theory to Practice

Having identified the need for greater police involvement in police research, the question remains: how will the profession accomplish this? In theory, the solution to this problem is easy: more training. In practice, however, this proves challenging. Very few agencies have sufficient training time or other resources to meet their current needs. Developing and maintaining the skill sets of both a researcher and police officers will be challenging. However, there are three main areas of focus that departments can pursue without overwhelming agency resources.

First, agencies should consider establishing and fostering relationships and formal research partnerships with existing police researchers. Developing these partnerships requires patience and clear communication about motivation, expectations, research interests, and research goals. Close partnerships allow for mentoring and skills transfer and help focus a research project to be relevant to departments, as well as academically rewarding for scholars. Such partnerships are challenging, but possible. There are resources available to support this work, such as the National Institute of Justice/International Association of Chiefs of Police guidebook: Establishing and Sustaining Law Enforcement Researcher Partnerships[ii]. Police agencies from Philadelphia, PA; Portland, OR; Seattle, WA; and other cities have taken this route and have benefited.

Second, agencies should consider rethinking what constitutes training. Police training opportunities are almost entirely centered on traditional skills such as driving, tactics, shooting, as well as crisis intervention and community police relations. Agencies need to think creatively about how to train a portion of their personnel on research-oriented skills. My own agency has allowed me to partner with Portland State University on several projects. These projects have benefited the agency while allowing me to develop my skills as a researcher. It may seem odd to train an officer on research methods, but thirty years ago, so was the idea of training officers to focus on mental health.

Third, agencies should turn to state and national-level resources to support their efforts. The fragmented nature of policing in the United States—with 17,000 independent departments across the country—leaves many agencies without the resources to develop research and data analysis skills. At the national level, programs like the National Institute of Justice’s Law Enforcement Advancing Data and Science (LEADS) Scholars and Agencies programs, as well as the Bureau of Justice Assistance’s Innovations Suite Fellows Academy, support officers and departments working to develop research and analytical skills. My own participation in both LEADS and the Strategies for Policing Innovations Academy has proven invaluable in terms of training and networking opportunities which would not otherwise have been available. My participation in the program was possible because my agency recognized the value of this training. Departments should leverage these trainings, officer development programs, and other resources.

At the state level, some Police Officer Standards and Training Boards have started to introduce this material through the use of supervisory classes. As officers advance in rank, there should be an increasing emphasis on understanding the research behind their work. In my state, Oregon’s Center for Policing Excellence has started such a training. Despite being relatively new, the Center is already helping advance policing in Oregon through programs such as the Oregon Knowledge Bank[iii]. Agencies should ask their state legislatures to support the growth of these programs.

The public’s expectations of police are expanding and the profession will grow to meet those demands. Research and data analysis skills are part of that growth. It’s no small task for officers and departments to develop research skills and implement evidence-based policing, but engaging in partnerships, rethinking training, and leveraging national and state resources can help facilitate this important process. It is my hope that law enforcement’s active participation in policing research will help guide and grow this research in a way that will make it relevant to officers and departments, thus providing greater benefit to the communities we serve.

[i] This research does exist, and is frequently conducted by former police turned researcher, but the quantity of such research is lacking.

[ii] Available at: https://bit.ly/2z9Jecs

[iii] For more on the OKB see: http://okb.oregon.gov/

For more information on the Center for Police Research and Policy, please visit http://www.theIACP.org/research.

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